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(skt.: vipashyana; tib: lag thong) The principal meditation taught in the Theravada tradition. It is sometimes called mindfulness meditation. In the Mahayana, vipashyana can have a different meaning: investigation of and familiarization with the actual way in which things exist and is used to develop the wisdom of emptiness. If a state of mind is one of vipashyana, it is combined with shamatha. Therefore, although we may work on vipashyana before attaining shamatha, we cannot actually attain vipashyana without having first attained shamatha.