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(skt.: shravaka; tib.: nyen tho) Shravaka literally means Hearer or Listener. It refers to those Hinayana practitioners who, with the motivation of renouncing the Samsara and to achieve permanent happines for themselves, strive to reach Nirvana. They focus on the Four Noble Truths and on understanding that there is no independent self. In this process they listen to the teachings of a Buddha, and achieve this goal by realizing the nonexistence of personal self.
(skt.: naraka; tib.: nyel wa) The lowest realm of samsara, which is full of suffering. There are four types of hells:
1. Hot hells
3. Cold hells
(skt.: hinayana; tib.: theg men) Small or lesser vehicle. It refers to one of the two general divisions of Buddhism. Hinayana is a collective term for eighteen Buddhist schools, only one of which is currently extant, Theravada. Some of the other schools are: Ekavyavaharika, Lokottaravada, Kaukkutika, Bahushrutiya, Prajnaptivadin (also Prajnaptivadin), Chaityavadin, Aparashaila, Uttarashaila, Mahasamghika, Mahishasaka, Kashyapiya, Sautrantika, Dharmottara, Bhadrayaniya, Sammatiya, Shannagarika.
(tib.: tsha nyel wa) They are said to be located under Bodhgaya in India. All the ground and all the mountains in these hells are composed entirely of red hot iron; the ground, like that in the human realms, is not at all flat and hell fire is seven time hotter than fire in human realms.