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Five aggregates
(sanskrit: pancha skandha, tib.: pung po nga) Five heaps or five aggregates of a being that come together at birth and seperate at death: 
1. physical body (tib.: zug kyi phung po): not only the body, but also other physical objects;
2. feeling (tib.: tshor we phung po): can be divided in happiness, unhappiness or neutral;
3. distinguishing (tib.: du she kyi phung po): distinguishes the special characteristic feature of an object (shape, color, etc.). For example, in seeing someones face, it distinguishes the shape and color of the face from the shapes and colors of everything around;
4. other factors (tib.: du je kyi phung po): comprises all variables, affecting the experience, that are not included in the other four aggregates like faith, intellect, personality, habits, ...
5. consciousness (tib.: nam she kyi phung po): main mind, the fact that you are aware of things, it is usually divided into awareness of vision, sounds, smells, taste, touch and mind.
Five degenerations
Five degenerations (nyig ma nga) increasing in the degenerate time (kaliyuga) are:
1. degeneration of time (tib.: du kyi nyig) - time of wars, peace does not last long; time of sicknesses with new diseases coming; the decline of quality of things, less nutritious food, famine; people are overwhelmed by spirit harms.
2. degeneration of sentient beings (tib.: sem cen gyi nyig ma) - refers to the decline in physical form, intellect, good health; beings are thick-skulled and difficult to subdue; the majority hold ideas that are morally wrong, many are intolerant to the point of hatred.
3. degeneration of lifespan (tib.: tshei nyig ma) - refers to the fact that the lifespan of beings declines from one hundred years all the way down to ten years.
4. degeneration of actions/views (tib.: le kyi nyig ma) - means that all sentient beings engage in the ten non-virtuous actions, people very easily believe in wrong philosophies and find it difficult to believe the right view.
5. degeneration of afflictions (tib.: nyon mong pe nyig ma) - indicates that the afflictions of ignorance, desire, anger, jealousy, pride and other delusions are becoming so strong that it is very difficult to abandon them.
Five immediate bad deeds

(skt.: anantarya karma; tib.: tsam me nga) Also translated as five heinous crimes or five immediate negativities. These five actions are so negative, that they are the cause, that you get reborn in hell immediately, that is, in the very next life, with no other rebirth in-between.

Five near immediate bad deeds

(skt.: anantarya sabhagah; tib.: nye we tsam me nga) These five actions are similar to the five immediate bad deeds in that they cause rebirth in hell, but not necessarily in the immediately following life.

Five paths
(tib.: lam nga) It refers to paths or stages along which beings progress to liberation and enlightenment:
1. path of accumulation (tib.: tsog lam) - we reach it when we realize renunciation and Bodhicitta (the latter in case of Mahayana path of accumulation);
2. path of preparation (tib.: jor lam) - deepening our understanding of reality and emptiness;
3. path of seeing (tib.: tong lam) - see emptiness directly and become Arya;
4. path of meditation (tib.: gom lam) - using insight gained in path of seeing we remove obscurations even further. In case of Mahayana path, we progress from first to tenth bhumi;
5. path of no more learning (tib.: mi lob lam) - achievement of Nirvana (Hinayana path) or Buddhahood (Mahayana path). We become Arhat (Hinayana path) or Buddha (Mahayana path).
Five powers at the time of death
They are transference of consciousness technique, one of the mind training practices. Five Powers are:
1. The power of intention / determination: determination not to allow our mind to become separated from the pure mind of Enlightenment, Bodhicitta.
2. The power of the white seed: destroying all the attachment by giving them to karmicaly potent recipients (such as Three Jewels), especially to our body because it has been the basis of the misconception of self, the root of all disturbing emotions.
3. The power of remorse / repudiation: confessing and then retaking broken vows at death; purifying the misdeeds by application of the four opponent powers.
4. The power of familiarity: familiarized with it, enter the death process mindful of the pure Mind of Enlightenment, Bodhicitta, in a sleeping lion posture.
5. The power of prayer / dedication: making prayers not to be separated from the Awakening Mind under any circumstances.
Five skandhas
(sanskrit: pancha skandha, tib.: pung po nga) Five heaps or five aggregates of a being that come together at birth and seperate at death: 
1. physical body (tib.: zug kyi phung po): not only the body, but also other physical objects;
2. feeling (tib.: tshor we phung po): can be divided in happiness, unhappiness or neutral;
3. distinguishing (tib.: du she kyi phung po): distinguishes the special characteristic feature of an object (shape, color, etc.). For example, in seeing someones face, it distinguishes the shape and color of the face from the shapes and colors of everything around;
4. other factors (tib.: du je kyi phung po): comprises all variables, affecting the experience, that are not included in the other four aggregates like faith, intellect, personality, habits, ...
5. consciousness (tib.: nam she kyi phung po): main mind, the fact that you are aware of things, it is usually divided into awareness of vision, sounds, smells, taste, touch and mind.
Foe destroyer

(tib.: dra chom pa) Sometimes also called Arhant, Arahat or Arahant; female Arhat is called Arhati. A being who has attained the fifth (and the last) path of no more learning by destroying mental afflictions and dualistic ego grasping. 

Four immeasurables

(skt.: apramanani; tib.: tse me shi) Sometimes also called the four limitless thoughts, the four boundless contemplations and sometimes also the four abodes of Brahma, because their cultivation causes rebirth as the king of the gods in the Realm of Form within samsaric existence. Four are called immeasurable because they are thoughts directed at an immeasurable number of beings, and because one gains immeasurable merit from thinking about them.

Four noble truths
(skt.: cattari ariya saccani; tib.: phag pe den pa shi) First sermon taught by the Buddha Shakyamuni in Deer Park, at Sarnath, India. The four noble truths are: 
1. (skt.: dukkha ariya sacca; tib.: dug ngel den pa) the truth of suffering, which means that all existence is suffering.
2. (skt.: dukkha samudayo ariya sacca; tib.: kun jung den pa) the truth of causes of suffering, which means that suffering is caused by desire.
3. (skt.: dukkha nirodho ariya sacca; tib.: gog pe den pa) the truth of the cessation of suffering, which means that the eradication of desire brings about the cessation of suffering and enables one to attain nirvana.
4. (skt.: dukkha nirodha gamini patipada ariya sacca; tib.: lam gyi den pa) the truth of the path leading to the cessation of suffering, which means that there is a path by which this eradication can be achieved, namely, the discipline of the eightfold path.
Four opponent powers
(tib.: tob shi) Four opponent powers are a method how to purify our negative karma which we have accumulated when acted in a negative way:
1. (tib.: nam par sun jin pe tob) the power of regret of a negative activity;
2. (tib.: ten gyi tob) the power of refuge - re-establishing of the right attitude;
3. (tib.: nye pa le lar dok pe tob) the power of resolution - decision not to repeat the negative action again;
4. (tib.: nyen po kun tu chu pe tob) the power of remedy - applying the antidotes, such as recitation of Sutras or Mantras, meditation on Emptiness, practice of Confession to the 35 Buddhas with prostrations, ...

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Words of Wisdom

"In short, both directly and indirectly, I offer every happiness and benefit to all my mothers. I shall secretly take upon myself all their harmful actions and suffering."
- Langri Tangpa

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