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(tib.: ge lug) Name means the virtuous order. Gelug was founded by Lama Tsong Khapa (1357-1419) and his disciples in the early fifteenth century. The leader of Gelug is Ganden Tripa. This school is also known as the Yellow hats. This is the newest of the four schools of Tibetan Buddhism (nyingma, kagyu, sakya, gelug).
(skt.: upasaka; tib.: genyen) Literally pursuer of virtue. Genyen is someone who keeps vows known as layman or laywomans vows. These five vows can either be taken all at once, or any of these vows can be taken distinctly, and they can either be taken for ones whole lifetime, or for a period of time that we decide ourselves. The lay ordination, when it is taken fully, is called the Genyen ordination.
(skt.: kalyanamitra; tib.: ge she) Literally virtuous friend. This title was given to spiritual masters in Atishas Kadam tradition, but nowadays it is more used as an academic title for a learned monk, who finished his study of important Buddhist scriptures and underwent series of rigorous oral examinations characterized by vigorous debate. According to the level of Geshe degree, it can take up to 25 years of study to reach it. There are usually four levels of Geshes: Lharampa (the highest, equivalent to PhD on the west), Tsogrampa, Dorampa and Lingse (the lowest).
(skt.: mahakaruna; tib.: nying je chen po) Great compassion. It exceeds ordinary compassion because it is aimed to all samsaric beings equally and besides the wish to remove the suffering of pain and the suffering of change, it also wants to remove the all pervading suffering. In a commentary by Kedrup Tenpa Dhargye on one of the Je Tsongkhapas works, mahakaruna is defined as: Uncontrived state of mind which, no matter what suffering being it may focus upon, feels an uncontrollable wish to free them from their pain with exactly the same intensity of love that a mother feels for her only child.
(skt.: guru; tib.: lama) A spiritual guide or teacher. Literally, heavy - heavy with knowledge of Dharma. Lama is a highly advanced spiritual teacher, personifying all the three Jewels: the Buddha, the Dharma and the Holy Sangha. One who shows and guides a disciple on the path to liberation and Enlightenment. Lama can be an ordained or a lay person, a man or a woman.