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(skt.: naga; tib.: lu) The Sanskrit word naga means snake or serpent. Nagas belong half to the animal realm and half to the god realm. Nagas are often snake-like in form, creatures with the torso and head of humans, and the body and tail of a snake, though they can assume human form at will. They dwell in a variety of locations ranging from waterways and underground locations and also in unseen realms. They are broadly divided into two classes: those that live on land (thalaja) and those that live on water (jalaja). The Jalaja-naga live in rivers as well as in the sea, while the Thalaja-naga are regarded as living beneath the surface of the earth.
(tib.: ngon dro) Preliminary practices. Literally, to go before or preliminary. These practices are found in all schools of Tibetan Buddhism and are usually done 100,000 times each; there are many preliminary practices, but the four main ones are usually: recitation of refuge and bodhicitta prayer, mandala offering, prostrations, Vajrasattva mantra recitation. Sometimes the four main ones are: guru yoga, Vajrasattva mantra recitation, prostrations and mandala offerings. The Gelug tradition adds five more: guru yoga, water bowl offerings, Damtsig Dorje purifiyng meditation, making tsa-tsas (small sacred images, usually made of clay), Dorje Khadro burnt offering.
|Nine stages to Shine||
(tib.: sem ne gu) There are nine stages of settling the mind into a state of shamatha.
(tib.: trul ku) Emanation body. There are three types of Nirmanakaya:
1. (tib. : zo ye tul ku) Nirmanakaya of artefacts, for example statues and ot her sacred artefacts that manifest and are venerated as religious obje cts.
2. (tib. : kye we tul ku) Nirmanakaya of birth, for example those highly evol ved beings who continue to reincarnate for the benefit of others, lik e His Holiness the Dalai Lama.
3. (tib. : chul ku tul ku) Absolute Nirmanakaya with all 112 physical signs l ike Lord Buddha Shakyamuni.
(skt.: nirvana, moksha; tib.: nyang de, nya ngen le de pa, thar pa) Literal translation from sanskrit could be blown out or extinction, while literal translation from tibetan could be gone beyond suffering. Nirvana is the goal of spiritual practice in Hinayana Buddhism, the liberation from the cycle of rebirth and suffering. Lord Buddha Shakyamuni in Anguttara Nikaya defined nirvana as: This is peace, this is exquisite - the resolution of all fabrications, the relinquishment of all acquisitions, the ending of craving; dispassion; cessation; Nirvana. In commentary by Kedrup Tenpa Dhargye on Maitreyas work The ornament of Realizations another definition of nirvana is found: Nirvana is a cessation which comes from understanding, and which consists of having eliminated all mental afflictions (and potentials for them to arise in future).
Nonduality means that the way we percieve is in accordance to reality.
(tib.: nying ma) The Ancient Order. The Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism originates from the Indian adept Padmasambhava who came to Tibet in 817 CE at the invitation of King Trisong Deutsan (742-797) to clear away the influences obstructing the establishment of Buddhism. This school is also known as the Red hats. This is the oldest of the four schools of Tibetan Buddhism (nyingma, kagyu, sakya, gelug).